Climate & Weather

Climate & Weather | Other Useful Climatology Stuff

I highly suggest perusing the pages at NCAR/UCAR’s Climate Data Guide!

A virtual climate library of surface temperature over North America for 1979–2015 
What: Air temperature at 32-km resolution 
Where: North America

What: Climate rasters with normals (30-yr averages) for current and future projections from 8 GCMs and their ensemble for CMIP5 (IPCC 5th Assessment Report) at 1-km resolution. Includes many biologically-relevant variables.
Where: North America

Aquatic Climate
What: Climate rasters and R packages for climate data relevant to freshwater environments
Where: Worldwide
Publication: Domish et al. 2015 (Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution Scientific Data 2:150073)

Atlas Climático Digital de México (Digital Climate Atlas of Mexico — en Español/in Spanish) (see here for downloads)
What: Climate rasters for select years and periods at 30-arcsec (~800-m) resolution
Where: Mexico

Australia Government Bureau of Meteorology (BOM)
What: Weather station data
Where: Australia
R packages: bomrang

Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections
What: Future climate rasters
Where: Coterminous United States

Bio-ORACLE: Marine environmental data
What: Rasters of marine climate, bathymetry, etc. for contemporary conditions and future scenarios at 5-arcmin resolution.
Where: Worldwide
Associated R package: sdmpredictors
Citation: Assis et al. 2018 Bio-ORACLE v2.0: Extending marine data layers for bioclimatic modelling. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27:277-284. (article)

Climate Analogs
What: Web-based computing to locate places with climate similar to a reference site’s climate.
Where: Worldwide

Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
What: Bias-corrected rasters of future climate from 35 GCMs for 4 RCPs at 30-arcsec (~1 km) resolution
Where: Worldwide
Citation: Navarro-Racines, C., Tarapues, J., Thornton, P., Jarvis, A., and Ramirez-Villegas, J. 2020. High-resolution and bias-corrected CMIP5 projections for climate change impact assessments. Scientific Data 7:7, doi:10.1038/s41597-019-0343-8

Climatic Water Deficit – Global Layer
What: Climatic water deficit (=max(0, precipitation – evapotranspiration)) rasters for the at 2.5 deg resolution
Where: Worldwide

What: Pre-generated rasters and freeware/cloud computing for generation of rasters with >200 different biologically-relevant variables at ≥30 arcsec (~1 km) resolution for current and future projections.
Where: North America (Western, Alberta, British Columbia, all North America), South America
See also: Andreas Hamman’s personal page — very helpful!

CliMond: Global Climatologies for Bioclimatic Modeling
What: Climate data including BIOCLIM variables 1 through 40 plus monthly and daily coverages (10′ and 30′ resolution)
Where: Worldwide

Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia 
What: Climate rasters back to 1860
Where: Worldwide
R package: getCRUCLData

CDO (Climate Data Online)
What: Climate and weather records (hourly/daily/monthly/normals)
Where: Worldwide

CORDEX (COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment)
What: Future climate (rasters) downscaled using RCMs
Where: Worldwide

What: “Daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length” at 1-km resolution
Where: United States

What: A small yet great selection of land cover, elevation, freshwater-relevant variables, and cloud cover rasters
Where: Worldwide

ENVIREM: An expanded set of bioclimatic variables
What: Definitions and rasters of a set of bioclimatic variables that extend the classic BIOCLIM variables.
Where: Worldwide
Citation: Title & Bemmels 2018 ENVIREM: An expanded set of bioclimatic and topographic variables increases flexibility and improves performance of ecological niche modeling.  Ecography 41:291-307 (article)

Future Snowfall and Winter Severity for Central-Eastern North America
What: Snowfall and winter severity
Where: Central-eastern North America
Citation: Notaro, M., Lorenz, D., Hoving, C. and Schummer, M.  2014. Twenty-first-century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America. Journal of Climate 27:6526-6550.

Levy et al. 2016.  A dynamically downscaled projection of past and future microclimates.  Ecology 97:1888.
What: Climate (temperature, precipitation, wind speed, soil temperature) at resolutions of 36 km at hourly temporal resolution for 1980-1999 and 2080-2099.
Where: Worldwide

Livneh et al. 2015 A spatially comprehensive, hydrometeorological data set for Mexico, the U.S., and Southern Canada 1950–2013.  Scientific Data 2:150042.
What: Climate rasters at 1/16deg (6-km) resolution
Where: North America

Lorenz et al. 2016.  Downscaled and debiased climate simulations for North America from 21,000 years ago to 2100AD.  Scientific Data 3:160048.
What: Climate and bioclimatic variables for the period 21,000 ybp to 2100CE at 0.5° spatial resolution and decadal to monthly resolution.
Where: North America

MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change)
What: Software to simulate emissions scenarios on a desktop computer
Where: Worldwide

MARSPEC: Ocean Climate Layers
What: Climate and salinity rasters
Where: Worldwide (marine)
Note: See also Paleo-MARSPEC

NARCCAP (North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program)
What: Climate rasters
Where: North America

NASA NEX-DCP30 (NASA Earth Exchange Downscaled Climate Projections)
What: Monthly min/max temperature and precipitation rasters from GCM predictions for 1950 to 2099 at 30-arcsec (~800 m) resolution for CMIP5 (IPCC 5th Assessment Report)
Where: Conterminous United States.

NCAR Climate Data Guide
What: Climate rasters
Where: Worldwide with a focus on North America

What: Climate and salinity rasters
Where: Worldwide for mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (marine)
See also: MARSPEC

PHYDA (Paleo Hydrodynamics Data Assimilation)
What: Rasters of temperature, drought indices, and other cyclic/regional weather indices from years 1 to 2000 CE at ~2 deg spatial resolution and annual and seasonal temporal resolutions
Where: Worldwide

PRISM (Parameter Regression on Independent Slopes Model) (United States | British Columbia)
What: Weekly climate at 4-km (free) and 30-arcsec (~800 m; pay for US and free for British Columbia) resolution from late 1895 to present
Where: Coterminous United States and British Columbia

SNAP (Scenarios and Networking for Alaska and Arctic Planning)
What: Historical and future climate rasters of various time periods from 771-m to 2.5 arcmin.
Where: Worldwide (some) with a focus on Alaska and western Canada.

TopoWx (Topography Weather)
What: Daily min/max temp temperature at 30-arcsec (~800-m) resolution for 1948-2015 and monthly normals for 1981-2010
Where: Conterminous United States
Citation: Oyler et al. 2015.  Creating a topoclimatic daily air temperature dataset for the conterminous United States using homogenized station data and remotely sensed land skin temperature. International Journal of Climatology 35:2258-2270. (article page)

SNODAS (Snow Data Assimilation System)
What: Gridded snow cover data from 2003 onward at 1-km spatial resolution and 1-d temporal resolution
Where: Contiguous United States
Citation: National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center. 2004. Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) Data Products at NSIDC, [list the dates of the data used]. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center

Temperature Extremes
What: Rasters depicting extreme temperature likelihoods at 12-km resolution
Where: Conterminous United States
Citation: Zobel at el. 2018 High-resolution dynamical downscaling ensemble projections of future extreme temperature distributions for the United States. Earth’s Future 5:1234-1251. (open source)

What: Gridded monthly climate (temperature, precipitation, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation) at 4-km resolution for 1958-2015
Where: Worldwide
Citation: Abatzglou et al. 2018 TerraClimate, a high-resolution global dataset of monthly climate and climatic water balance from 1958–2015. Scientific Data 5 170191.

What: Current, future, mid-Holocene, and Last Glacial Maximum monthly climate and “BIOCLIM” rasters at 10-arcmin (~16 km) to 30-arcsec (~800 m)
Where: Worldwide
Citation: Hijmans, RJ, Cameron, SE,. Parram JL,. Jones, PG, and Jarvis, A. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas.  International Journal of Climatology 25:1965-1978. (pdf)

Other Useful Climatalogical Stuff

SNAP Downscaling Methods and Scripts
What: Description and scripts for downscaling climate data